A delicate combination of bones, muscles, nerves, cartilage, and skin, the human body is exposed to a great deal of risk on any given day. At the forefront of the body is the face. Trauma, disease, infection, and some medical conditions can threaten or injure this complex set of structures. When this occurs, individuals should seek out the aid of a board-certified plastic surgeon with the ability to skillfully perform facial reconstructive surgery.
Facial reconstruction can loosely be defined as surgery following an injury that can rebuild any part of the face ranging from the bones to the various soft tissue. Depending on the complexity of the case and the particular structures damaged, this may involve any of a number of individual procedures or combination of procedures with the goal of restoring functionality and natural aesthetic. Occasionally, these must be staged, meaning they can not all be performed simultaneously but rather must be separated out over days or even weeks. Cleft lip and palate, earlobe reconstruction, nose contouring or reconstruction, scar revision, and skin cancer reconstruction are just a few examples of conditions that may require surgery. In addition to this, facial fractures often involve a complex series of issues on their own and require surgical intervention to prevent vision changes and maintain symmetry, ability to chew normally, and optimize aesthetics after trauma.
Using a combination of techniques employed in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery such as fat grafting, local soft tissue flaps, bone and muscle free tissue transfers, and plating fractures, the injured parts of the face may be restored to their native position and covered with tissue or bone from other areas.